The Second Turning
Passage Hand
Year 10,173 Contasta Ar


This is my narrative and relevant references from the Books where Months are mentioned.
I make no pronouncements on these matters, but report them as I find them.
Arrive at your own conclusions.

I wish you well,

The Gorean calendar is divided into twelve months.
Each month consists of five weeks, each of which is five days long.

Each month is separated from the next month by a five day period call a Passage Hand.

After the Passage Hand following the twelfth month is another five day period known as the Waiting Hand.

Month names differ from city to city. But, among the civilized cities, there are four months which do have common names.
En'Kara - The first month of the year, beginning with the Spring or Vernal Equinox
En'Var - The fourth month - Summer Solstice
Se'Kara - The seventh month - Autumnal Equinox
Se'Var - The tenth month - Winter Solstice

There are then two other months mentioned;
The second month of the year is called Hesius in Ar and called Lykourgos in Brundisium.
The third month is called Camerius in Ar and Selnar in Ko-ro-ba.

Months of the Red Savages

We know for certain the names of two months (moons) and when these are within the year. We know the vernal equinox occurs in the Sore-Eye Moon (Book 18, Page 466) and we know the autumnal equinox occurs in the Moon when the wind shakes off the leaves (Book 17, Page 253).

Several other groups of months are listed in order or are specified as occurring before or after one another.

Using the two equinox anchor points and then the groupings specified, we can establish the order of the elven named moons (months).

Vernal Equinox
Sore-Eye Moon - Istawicayazanwi

Moon of the Returning Gants - Magaksicaagliwi (Early Spring)

Planting Moon - Wozupiwi

(unnamed moon)

Moon in which the tabuk rut - Takiyuhawi --- a.k.a. Moon when the chokecherries are ripe - Canpasapawi

Moon when the plums are red - Kantasawi

Autumnal Equinox
Moon in which the leaves become brown - Canwapegiwi

Corn-Harvest Moon - Wayuksapiwi --- a.k.a. Moon when the wind shakes off the leaves - Canwapekasnawi

Mid-Winter Moon - Wanicokanwi

Hard Moon - Witehi

Urt Moon - Wicatawi

Supporting References

It was now the month of the vernal equinox on Gor, called En'Kara, or The First Kara. The full expression is En'Kara-Lar-Torvis, which means, rather literally, The First Turning of the Central Fire. Lar-Torvis is a Gorean expression for the sun. More commonly, though never in the context of time, the sun is referred to as Tor-tu-Gor, or Light Upon the Home Stone. The month of the autumnal equinox is called fully Se'Kara-Lar-Torvis, but usually simply Se'Kara, The Second Kara, or The Second Turning.

As might be expected there are related expressions for the months of the solstices, En'Var-Lar-Torvis and Se'Var-Lar-Torvis, or, again rather literally, The First Resting and the Second Resting of the Central Fire. These, however, like the other expressions, usually occur in speech only as En'Var and Se'Var, or The First Resting and The Second Resting.
Outlaw of Gor     Book 2     Page 178

There are twelve twenty-five day Gorean months, incidentally, in most of the calendars of the various cities. Each month, containing five five-day weeks, is separated by a five-day period, called the Passage Hand, from every other month, there being one exception to this, which is that the last month of the year is separated from the first month of the year, which begins with the Vernal Equinox, not only by a Passage Hand, but by another five-day period called the Waiting Hand, during which doorways are painted white, little food is eaten, little is drunk and there is to be no singing or public rejoicing in the city; during this time Goreans go out as little as possible; the Initiates, interestingly enough, do not make much out of the Waiting Hand in their ceremonies and preachments, which leads one to believe it is not intended to be of any sort of religious significance; it is perhaps, in its way, a period of mourning for the old year; Goreans, living much of their lives in the open, on the bridges and in the streets, are much closer to nature's year than most humans of Earth; but on the Vernal Equinox which marks the first day of the New Year in most Gorean cities, there is great rejoicing; the doorways are painted green, and there is song on the bridges, games, contests, visitings of friends and much feasting, which lasts for the first ten days of the first month, thereby doubling the period taken in the Waiting Hand. Month names differ, unfortunately, from city to city, but, among the civilized cities, there are four months, associated with the equinoxes and solstices, and the great fairs at the Sardar, which do have common names, the months of En'Kara, or En'Kara-Lar-Torvis; En'Var, or En'var-Lar-Torvis; Se'Kara, or Se'Kara-Lar-Torvis; and Se'Var, or Se'Var-Lar-Torvis.
Assassin of Gor     Book 5     Page 78 - 79

The night that Phyllis Robertson, under the torches in the hall of Cernus, while we supped, performed the belt dance, was the last day of the Eleventh passage hand, about a month before the Gorean New Year, which occurs on the Vernal Equinox, the first day of the month of En'Kara.
Assassin of Gor Book 5     Page 205

He did so late in spring, on the sixteenth day of the third month, that month which in Ar is called Camerius in Ko-ro-ba Selnar.
Assassin of Gor     Book 5     Page 234

It was the fourth day of the sixth passage hand, shortly before the Autumnal Equinox, which in the common Gorean calendar begins the month of Se'Kara. In the calendar of Ko-ro-ba, which, like most Gorean cities, marks years by its Administrator Lists, it would be the eleventh year of the administration of my father, Matthew Cabot. In the calendar of Ar, for those it might interest, it was the first year of the restoration of Marlenus, Ubar of Ubars, but, more usefully for the purposes of consolidating the normal chaos of Gorean chronology, it was the year 10,119 Contasta Ar, that is, from the founding of Ar.
Raiders of Gor     Book 6     Page 1 - 2

The Gorean week consists of five days. Each month consists of five such weeks. Following each month, of which there are twelve, separating them, is a five-day Passage Hand. The twelfth Passage Hand is followed by the Waiting Hand, a five-day period prior to the vernal equinox, which marks the Gorean New Year.
Tribesmen of Gor     Book 10     Page 26

The wand before us was some seven or eight feet high. It is of this height, apparently, that it may be seen above the snow, during the winter moons, such as Waniyetuwi and Wanicokanwi.
Savages of Gor     Book 17     Page 143

For those who might be interested in such things, we came to the wands in the early spring, early in Magaksicaagliwi, which is the Moon of the Returning Gants. The preceding moon was the Sore-Eye Moon, or Istawicayazanwi. Because of its uncertain weather, the possible freezes and storms, and its harsh winds, this month had been avoided by Grunt. The next moon was Wozupiwi, the Planting Moon, which term, in the context, I find extremely interesting.
Savages of Gor     Book 17     Page 144

"In Kantasawi," he said, "the moon when the plums are red." This was the moon following the next moon, which is known variously as Takiyuhawi, the moon in which the tabuk rut, or Canpasapawi, the moon when the chokecherries are ripe.

"Will this give you time to return to Kailiauk?" I asked. Otherwise he would have to winter in the Barrens. The red savages themselves sometimes found it difficult to survive the long and severe winters, particularly if the hunting was poor.

"Two moons will be sufficient to return to Kailiauk," said Grunt, "if one does not stop for trading." The two moons he had in mind, as I later learned, were Canwapegiwi, the moon in which the leaves become brown, and the moon known variously as Wayuksapiwi, the Corn-Harvest Moon, or Canwapekasnawi, the moon when the wind shakes off the leaves. The autumnal equinox occurs in Canwapegiwi.
Savages of Gor     Book 17     Page 253

The current moon was Takiyuhawi, the moon in which the tabuk rut. It is sometimes known also as Canpasapawi, or the moon when the chokecherries are ripe.

"I do not understand," said Grunt. "It is not due until Kantasawi." This was the moon in which the plums become red. It is generally the hottest time of the year in the Barrens. It occurs in the latter portion of the summer.
Blood Brothers of Gor     Book 18     Page 5

"It is early," I said. It was not due in the country of the Kaiila until Kantasawi, the moon in which the plums become red. This was only Takiyuhawi, the moon in which the tabuk rut, or, as some call it, Canpasapawi, the moon in which the chokecherries are ripe.
Blood Brothers of Gor     Book 18     Pages 21 - 22

"I wish to be ready no later than the end of Canwapegiwi," I said, "the moon when the leaves become brown." It is in Canwapegiwi that the autumnal equinox occurs.
Blood Brothers of Gor     Book 18     Page 380

This was now Wayuksapiwi, in the calendar of the Dust Legs, the Corn-Harvest Moon, or, as it is spoken of in the reckoning of the Kaiila, Canwapekasnawi, the moon when the wind shakes off the leaves.

Only too dearly did the browning grass and the cool winds presage the turning of the seasons, and the advent of the gray skies and long nights of the bitter moons, Waniyetuwi, called the Winter Moon; Wanicokanwi, called the Mid-Winter Moon; Witehi, the Hard Moon; and Wicatawi, the Urt Moon. The vernal equinox occurs in Istawicayazanwi, the Sore-Eye Moon. Grunt and I had originally come to the Barrens, it now seemed long ago, in Magaksicaagliwi, the Moon of the Returning Giants.
Blood Brothers of Gor     Book 18     Page 466

"As I recall the ones here, they celebrated the feats of Hesius, a perhaps legendary hero of Ar."
"He for whom the month of Hesius is named," said Marcus.
"I presume so," I said. The month of Hesius is the second month of the year in Ar. It follows the first passage hand. In Ar, as in most cities in the northern hemisphere, the new year begins with the vernal equinox.
Magicians of Gor     Book 25     Page 106

Most Gorean months are numbered, and not named, rather as October would have been the eighth month, November the ninth month, December the tenth month, and so on, of the Julian calendar. On the other hand, some months are named in given cities, for example, the third month is called Camerius in Ar, Selnar in Ko-ro-ba, and so on. Generally the four named months are associated with the solstices and the equinoxes. For example, the fourth month, that following the third passage hand and the summer solstice, is En'var or En'var-Lar-Torvis, the First Standing of the Sun; the seventh month, following the sixth passage hand and the autumnal equinox is Se'Kara or Se'Kara-Lar-Torvis, The Second Turning of the Sun; the tenth month, following the ninth passage hand and the winter solstice is Se'Var or Se'Var-Lar-Torvis, the Second Standing of the Sun; and the first month, following the twelfth passage hand and the waiting hand, culminating in the vernal equinox, is En'Kara or En'Kara-Lar-Torvis, the First Turning of the Sun. The passage hands and the waiting hand are five days each. A Gorean month consists of five five-day weeks. The Gorean year, as that of its sister world, Earth, is approximately 365 days in length. Every few years, as necessitated, an additional day is inserted into the calendar, at the end of the waiting hand, but, as the Gorean year is apparently somewhat shorter than the Earth year, and as its orbit seems to vary somewhat, from time to time, presumably due to the adjustments of Priest-Kings, the insertion year varies somewhat.
Swordsmen of Gor     Book 29     Page 465

It was now the second month in autumn, called in Brundisium the month of Lykourgos.
Mariners of Gor     Book 30     Page 2

It was now the fifth week following the Eighth Passage Hand. Tomorrow would be the first day of the Ninth Passage Hand, at the end of which is the winter solstice, and the first day of Se'var-Lar-Torvis, the month of the Second Turning of Tor-tu-Gor, Light-upon-the-Home-Stone.
Mariners of Gor     Book 30     Page 129

It was the third month, the first week past the second passage hand. This is the month which in Ar is called Camerius. In other places it has other names, in Cos the month of Lurius, named for our great Ubar, whose palaces and fortresses are in Jad. In Ko-ro-ba, it is spoken of as Selnar. I do not know how it is spoken of amongst you, in Brundisium. Ah, the month of Policrates! Very well, let it be so. In any event, it was the third month.
Mariners of Gor     Book 30     Page 195

I had at this time, been better than three months and four passage hands on your world.
Conspirators of Gor     Book 31     Page 39

It was now a month and a passage hand after I had been robbed on the way to the shop of Amyntas.
Conspirators of Gor     Book 31     Page 629

"I have waited long for this day," said Lucius, "years of secret thoughts, of hypocrisy, and deception, months of planning, days of strife, weeks of withdrawal, of hiding in tunnels, and waiting, and then, by means of an unexpected, bold, and glorious stroke, victory!"
Conspirators of Gor     Book 31     Page 603

Following the last day of the Ninth Passage Hand, Tor-tu-Gor, Light-Upon-the-Home Stone, had rested.
"The days will now grow longer," had said Lord Nishida.
Rebels of Gor     Book 33     Page 1

Se'Var had passed, and it was now the second day of the tenth passage hand.
Rebels of Gor     Book 33     Page 46

Today was the fourth day of En'Var, or En'Var-Lar-Torvis, which month follows the last day of the Third Passage Hand, which is the summer solstice. On this day, in Year Eleven of the Council of Captains, the Palace of Captains, actually a rather fortresslike structure, had been completed by the men of the Builders, one of Gor's high castes, the caste color of which is yellow.
Quarry of Gor     Book 35     Page 163

"The projected attack, then, is not imminent," said Astron.
"Far from it," said Florian. "It is beset by difficulties of recruitment and supply. It is currently scheduled, tentatively, for the tenth day of the tenth month, Se'Var."
Se'Var, or Se'var-Lar-Torvis, follows the Ninth Passage Hand, the last day of which is the winter solstice. Se'Var-Lar-Torvis is the "Second Resting of the Central Fire," the sun, Tor-tu-Gor, Light-upon-the-Home Stone.
Quarry of Gor     Book 35     Page 366

It was crowded, as was often the case toward the end of a week or the end of a passage hand, that having to do with the paying of wages. There are twelve months in the Gorean calendar, each consisting of five five-day weeks, each followed by a five-day passage hand. The only exception is the five-day "Waiting Hand" which follows the Twelfth Passage Hand, and precedes the first day of the month of En'Kara, or En'Kara-La-Torvis, which is the vernal equinox, the first day of the Gorean New Year.
Quarry of Gor     Book 35     Page 419


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