These are relevant references from the Books where Judge is mentioned.
I make no pronouncements on these matters, but report them as I find them.
Arrive at your own conclusions.
I wish you well,
On Gor, incidentally, chairs have special significance, and do not often occur in private dwellings. They tend to be reserved for significant personages, such as administrators and judges.
Behind the wagon, in the white robes, trimmed with gold and purple, of merchant magistrates, came five men. I recognized them as judges.
A judge climbed, on wooden stairs at the back of the wagon, to its surface. The other judges stood below him, on the street.
The girl pulled at the leather binding fiber fastening her wrists behind her back. She moved her neck and head in the confinement of the chain and leather, at the end of the pole.
"Will the Lady Tina of Lydius deign to face me?"
"Will the Ubar be present at the trial?" I asked.
"Of course," said Hemartius. "He is the supreme ruling judge."
"What seems interesting to me," said Hemartius, "in your barbarian view of law, as you explain it to me, is the presumption of innocence. What sort of legal system would accept that as a presumption? Unless we suppose that judges, attorneys, courts, and such, are incompetent, or corrupt, a defendant would not have been charged and brought to trial in the first place, not unless there was a presumption of guilt. Thus, having been brought to trial is, in itself, evidence that one is presumably guilty. Else why bother with a trial, at all?"
Much, it seems, depends on the particular city and even, upon occasion, on the particular judge and court.
On the deep, broad stage of the theater, above and before the orchestra area housing the jury, were five things, the throne of the high judge, the table of the prosecution, the table of the defense, the dais of questioning, and the dock, a cage, in which the defendant was held. The tables of the prosecution and defense faced the throne of the high judge. The dais of questioning and the dock faced the orchestra area.
On the seat of the high judge, also facing the orchestra area, raised several feet in the air, that one must feel overshadowed, intimidated, and awed before it, so arranged that one must look upward to its lofty precincts as might a child to an adult, reposing in dark-robed splendor, suggesting the might, gravity, and solemnity of the law, was gigantic, bearded Marlenus of Ar himself.
One concession the court denied her was her demand to shield her features by veiling. To give the court its due, I do not think any bias was involved in this decision. It is common precedent to deny veiling to female defendants. Supposedly this is, first, to make the defendant more vulnerably recognizable, this to make escape, prisoner switches, and such less possible, and, second, to allow the judge and the jury to read what they can from the defendant's features.
"Now," said Decius Albus, "we await the word of our high judge, master of law, paragon of justice, Marlenus, Ubar of Glorious Ar."